۱۳۸۷ آذر ۱۰, یکشنبه

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۱۳۸۷ تیر ۵, چهارشنبه

Al Fujairah) Fujairah- الفجيرة - فجيره)

Fujairah (Arabic: الفجيرة, transliteration: fuǧayrah) is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, on the Gulf of Oman in the country's east.
The Emirate of Fujairah covers 1,150 km² (440 sq mi), or about 1.5% of the area of the U.A.E. Its population is around 130,000 inhabitants. Only the Emirate of Umm al-Quwain has fewer occupants.
Fujairah is the only Emirate of the U.A.E. that is almost totally mountainous. All the other Emirates, like Dubai and Abu Dhabi are located on the west coast, and are largely covered by desert. Therefore, Fujairah boasts a higher than average yearly rainfall, allowing farmers in the region to produce one meaningful crop every year.
The weather is seasonal, although it is warm for most of the year. The months of October to March are generally regarded as the coolest, with daytime temperatures averaging around 25 °C (77 °F) and rarely venturing above 30 °C (86 °F) with temperatures climbing to over 40 °C (104 °F) degrees in the summer. The winter period also coincides with the rainy season and although by no means guaranteed, this is when Fujairah experiences the bulk of its precipitation. Rainfall is higher than the rest of the U.A.E. partly because of the effect of the mountains that encircle the Emirate, and partly because the prevailing winds are westerly bringing with them water-laden clouds off the warm Indian Ocean.
The variability of the east coast climate is partly due to the presence of the Hajjar mountain range. As with other mountainous areas, precipitation is higher, and this allows for a more varied micro-environment in the area. Tourists may thus be drawn to the uniqueness of Fujairah, with visitor numbers peaking just before the school summer months.
Power is ultimately held by the ruler of Fujairah, Shaikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi, who has been in power since the death of his father in 1974. The Shaikh supposedly makes his own money by doing business, and the government funds are used for social housing development and beautifying the city, though there is little distinction between the state and his personal wealth. Any decisions regarding any aspect of law can be made by the ruler, although Federal laws are never repealed. But, it must be stressed that the ruler of the Emirate can choose to operate in a completely autonomous fashion.
The Cabinet of Fujairah is headed by the sheikh and his immediate family, with a few members of respected local families making up the advisory committees. Any Cabinet decisions must be ratified by the sheikh himself, after which they may be enacted into law as Emiri Decrees. Emiri Decrees are usually effective immediately, and without proper public consultation processes, can sometimes be confusing, causing not inconsiderable consternation amongst the inhabitants of the city.
Foreigners or visitors are not allowed to buy land. Emirati nationals can purchase land from the government, after proving their nationality. If there is no suitable land available via the official government offices, private purchases can also be made, with the eventual price being determined by the market and the individuals themselves.
Fujairah's economy is based around subsidies and federal government grants, distributed by the government of Abu Dhabi (the seat of power in the U.A.E.). Local industry consists of cement, stone crushing and mining. These industries have witnessed a resurgence due to the frenzied construction activity taking place the commercial powerhouses of the country. Notably, there is a flourishing free trade zone,[1] mimicking the success of the Dubai Free Zone Authority[2] which was established around Jebel Ali Port, the busiest port in the region since the 1980s. It has witnessed an exponential growth from 2003 onwards, leading to an expansion project that would double its capacity.
Federal government departments employ the majority of the native (local) workforce, with few opening businesses of their own, and many of the local citizens (also referred to as locals) work within the service sector. The Fujairah government imposes strict commercial laws which prohibit foreigners from owning more than 49% of any business or enterprise. Some of the reason why the free zone authorities have flourished to such an extent, is due to the relaxation of this rule within their boundaries, allowing full foreign ownership. Shaikh Saleh Al Sharqi, younger brother to the ruler, is widely recognised as the driving force behind the commercialisation of the economy.
Unemployment, however, remains a grave concern for the government. Conservative figures put the unemployment rate at around 50% - 60%, which is amongst the highest in the world. There is a fear that without affirmative and decisive action, there is a real danger that apathy and discontent could spread amongst the youth, which could prove to be an extremely volatile situation for future administrations.
Poor wages are also a problem in Fujairah, with construction workers at the bottom of the pyramid. On average a 12 hour working day, starting at 7 am and ending at 8 pm, will only provide about US$5 - US$10, out of which the workers pay for meals, transport and entertainment. Some companies pay the workers per day and some of them per month. It depends on the company that they work for and on the workers themselves (if they work for all the time they were assigned).
Companies seldom pay for workers healthcare[citation needed], and these are hence responsible for financing their hospital visits, whenever the government doesn't subsidize it.
Future developments
The present ruler is planning to make changes that will affect Fujairah in the future. Among other tourism projects in the pipeline is an $817m resort, Al Fujairah Paradise, near Dibba, on the northern Omani border, next to Le Meridien Al Aqah Beach Resort. There will be around 1,000 five-star villas as well as hotels, and it is expected that all the construction work will be finished within two years.
The sheikh is trying to improve opportunities for the local workforce, by trying to entice businesses to locate in Fujairah and diverting Federal funds to local companies in the form of development projects.
Recently an Abu Dhabi-Fujairah Pipeline was announced which would create an oil export terminal in the emirate
Living in Fujairah
It is ruled by a well educated Emir. Common sense normally prevails, but as with anywhere, it is advisable to keep on the right side of the law. On some Fridays, one can still witness lashes meted out for minor offences, such as being drunk in public, with the unfortunate victims usually from the poorer segments of society. Punishments such as these are delivered outside the main court, located next to Fujairah Tower, in the centre of the city.
alcohol is allowed in designated hotels and, as of 2000, a few bars. Until 1998, gambling in the form of slot machines (one arm bandits) was allowed in certain hotels, but personal petitions by locals to the Shaikh outlawed the activity. It transpired that some players were losing their entire monthly wages on the slots, leaving nothing for the upkeep of their families. The petition was taken to the Shaikh's wife, who then influenced her husband.
At night, there is quite a lot to keep one amused. Fujairah is one of the safest cities in the UAE.
Cinemas are generally open till late and de-sexualised versions of the Hollywood blockbusters are normally being shown. It may be amusing to watch movies, which after editing can run for a little over an hour. However, the Hindi cinemas are not constrained by the censors because they are not as raunchy as some Hollywood productions. It is noticeable that most of the cinema-goers are male youths.
Groups of local (Emirati) youths tend to socialise together on the streets and cafés or outside games arcades, cinemas and mini malls. It will be unusual to see females in these groups as Emirati society is quite segregated. Large groups tend to be boisterous and will play up if given the chance. As with groups of youngsters anywhere, it is best to steer clear to avoid trouble, although serious incidents are rare.
On the weekends, many Fujairah residents travel to Dubai to shop, and into the
wadis surrounding the emirate on camping and hiking trips. There is also a weekly invasion of west coast residents trying to get away from the stifling heat of the desert. Watersports are very popular amongst the youth - jet skiing, windsurfing and water skiing being the top three.
Travel in and around Fujairah and the surrounding towns of Khor Kalba, Khor Fakkan, Kalba and Masafi has been made easy by the development of modern highways over the last 30 years, since gaining independence in 1971. Highways are funded by the federal government directly, and contracts are tendered centrally. This is meant to safeguard the quality and delivery of the contracts and prevent corruption from damaging the construction. Highways are vital due to the unavailability of any other means of transport. There are some buses in Fujairah but not for travel; they are for schools, colleges and some companies or they come from other cities. There are no railways in Fujairah. The car and the truck are the main mode of transport. Most daily activities can become impractical, if not impossible, without a private vehicle.
Newcomers and tourists therefore must take advantage of the local taxi system. There are numerous taxis plying the streets at any given time, day and night. There is no central booking system for private companies, but the government is planning to apply one. The only way to hail a taxi is to stand by the roadside and flag one down. There isn't normally a problem and there will be at least one taxi, if not more, immediately available for hire. Fares within the city are fixed at AED 4 per journey, which equates to approximately 80 cents (USD) or 50 pence (GBP). Destinations which are slightly outside the main city, such as the Beach Motel, Fujairah Hospital and the Jail attract a higher fare of AED 6. It is wise to negotiate the fare before boarding the taxi, as the drivers have a tendency to inflate the prices randomly. However, it must be stressed that most taxis are relatively clean and offer good value for money.
Meter Taxi's have been recently introduced to Fujairah roads. The meter starting from a minimum of AED 2 and climbing quickly as the meter runs. A ride in the new, neat, well maintained taxi now will cost you an average of AED 6.
The Fujairah International Airport is nearby the city, with an impressive falcon statue at the airport roundabout.

Ras al-Khaimah (إمارة رأس الخيمة - راس الخيمه)

Ras Al-Khaimah (Arabic: رأس الخيمة, transliteration: rās al-ḫaymah, literally "The Top of the Tent") is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates. It covers an area of 656 square miles (1700 km²). Ras Al Khaimah is in the northern part of the Persian gulf.
The emirate is ruled by Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi. It is in the northern part of the UAE bordering Oman. The emirate has a population of about 250,000 inhabitants.
The city has a population of 219,897 as of 2008.[1] It is served by the Ras Al Khaimah International Airport in Al Jazirah Al Hamra.
The city has two main sections, Old Ras Al Khaimah and Nakheel, on either side of the creek which flows through Ras Al Khaimah.
The city was historically known as Julfar. Sources say that Julfar was inhabited by the Azd (They were a branch of the Kahlan tribe, which was one of the two branches of Qahtan (the aboriginal Arabs), the other being Himyar.) during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, and that the houses of the Azd were built of wood.
In the early 18th century the Qawasim clan (Huwayla tribe) established itself in Ras al-Khaimah.
After British occupation (18 December 1819 - July 1821), Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr al-Qasimi signed in 1822 the General Maritime Treaty with Britain, accepting a protectorate to keep the Ottoman Turks out. Like Ajman, Dubai, Umm al-Qaiwain and Sharjah, its position on the route to India made it important enough to be recognized as a salute state (though of the lowest class: only 3 guns).
In 1869 Ras al-Khaimah became fully independent from Sharjah. However from September 1900 to 7 July 1921 it was re-incorporated into Sharjah, its neighbour; the last governor became its next independent ruler.
On 11 February 1972, Sheikh Saqr bin Muhammad al-Qasimi joined the United Arab Emirates.
Its rulers were:
17?? - 17?? Sheikh Rahman al-Qasimi
17?? - 174? Sheikh Matar bin Rahman al-Qasimi
174? - 1777 Sheikh Rashid bin Matar al-Qasimi
1777 - 1803 Sheikh Saqr bin Rashid al-Qasimi
1803 - 1808 Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr al-Qasimi (d. 1866) (1st time)
1808 - 1814 Sheikh al-Husayn bin `Ali al-Qasimi (acting)
1814 - 1820 Sheikh al-Hasan bin Rahman al-Qasimi (acting)
1820 - 1866 Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr al-Qasimi (2nd time)
1866 - May 1867 Sheikh Ibrahim bin Sultan al-Qasimi
May 1867 - 14 April 1868 Sheikh Khalid bin Sultan al-Qasimi (d. 1868)
14 April 1868 - 1869 Sheikh Salim bin Sultan al-Qasimi (b. 18.. - d. 1919)
1869 - August 1900 Sheikh Humayd bin Abdullah al-Qasimi (d. 1900)
Sharjah then appointed governors:
September 1900 - 1909 Currently Unknown
1909 - August 1919 Sheikh Salim bin Sultan al-Qasimi (s.a.)
August 1919 - 10 July 1921 Sheikh Sultan bin Salim al-Qasimi (b. 1891 - d. 19..), who stayed on the first of its own rulers:
10 July 1921 - Feb 1948 Sheikh Sultan bin Salim al-Qasimi (s.a.)
17 July 1948 - present Sheikh Saqr bin Muhammad al-Qasimi (b. 1918)
Schools: A large number of Government-run schools--primary, elementary and higher secondary--are scattered all over Ras Al Khaimah with Arabic as their main medium of instruction. Among other Arabic-medium schools are those that are run by private managements, viz.:
The Egyptian School
Badr Primary School
Apart from the above schools, there are English-medium ones which offer varied curricula to suit the expatriate community, offering syllabi such as GCSE, IGCSE, A Levels, O Levels, CBSE, Kerala State-Board (Indian Syllabi), Pakistani, Dhaka Board(Bangladeshi Syllabi) etc. viz.
Ras Al Khaimah English Speaking School
The International School of Choueifat
Indian School Ras Al Khaimah
Bangladesh Islamia School
The New Indian Higher Secondary School
Pakistani Higher Secondary School
Indian Public High School
University Education: Many locally-established universities and foreign universities have set up base in Ras Al Khaimah, some of which include:
Ittihad University
Royal College of Applied Sciences and Technology
Ras al-Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University
George Mason University Ras Al Khaimah campus [2]
Higher Colleges of Technology
Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
Within Ras Al Khaimah: Metered taxis are the main mode of transport within Ras Al Khaimah. Public buses also operate only on long-haul routes and they cater mainly to people residing in far-flung towns, viz. Sha`am, Rams, Jazeerah-al-Hamra etc.
Emirate-to-Emirate: Ras Al Khaimah is connected to emirates like Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah by taxis which often embark from the taxi-stand located south of Al Dhaid town near the new RAK Police Headquarters. The fare per head is AED 20. Engaged taxis are available on request for Dhs 100 to 150 to Dubai and Dhs 200 to 250 to Abu Dhabi.
Cars are available for rent from various Rent-A-Cars at negotiable prices starting at Dhs 80.
Highways: Three free-flowing dual-carriageways link Ras Al Khaimah with the other emirates and beyond. One follows the coast with beaches on one side and stretches of desert on the other; the other, new route runs out towards the airport in the direction of Khatt, Masafi, Fujairah and Dhaid and further onto Oman.
The newly constructed 'Emirates Road (E311 Highway)' traverses the emirates of Umm Al Quwain, Ajman (60km) and Sharjah (71km) to finally end up in Dubai (87km). The new highway allows journeys from Ras Al Khaimah to Dubai in under 45 minutes.

Ras Al Khaimah Sea Port
Seaport: Saqr Port, located in the industrial area of Khor Khuwair, is the Emirate's main port, providing bulk and container services. It has eight deep water berths, each 200 m long, is dredged to 12.2 m and has two ro-ro ramps plus specialised berths for handling bulk cement and aggregate. Other services include ship handling, crew changes and 40,000 m2 of covered storage together with a vast open storage area. It is also the closest port in the UAE to Bandar Abbas in Iran.
Airport: The Ras Al Khaimah International Airport is currently undergoing an upgrade. It operates cargo and passenger services to a variety of destinations covering the Middle East, North & East Africa, Central Asia, India and the Far East. In total 27 airlines including Gulf Air, Egypt Air, Indian Airlines, Aeroflot, Pakistan International Airlines and many other airlines operate scheduled and non-scheduled flights. Open 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, the airport has an open skies policy with no restrictions on frequencies and time of arrival / departure; offers competitive tariffs and storage facilities; is not congested, and has a full offering of duty-free goods, among other services.
Spaceport: On February 17th 2006, Space Adventures announced its plans to develop a $265 m commercial spaceport in Ras Al-Khaimah (Ras Al Khaimah spaceport) for purposes of space tourism.[3]

۱۳۸۷ تیر ۲, یکشنبه

Umm al-Quwain(إمارة أمّ القيوين-ام القوين)

Umm al-Quwain (Arabic: أمّ القيوين, transliteration: umm al-quwwayn, literally "Mother of two powers") is one of the emirates in the United Arab Emirates. It is located in the north of the country. The emirate is ruled by Rashid bin Ahmad Al Mu'alla, who has been a member of the UAE's Supreme Council since 1981. The emirate had 62,000 inhabitants in 2003 (making it the least populous emirate in the federation) and has an area of 750 square kilometers. Accepted alternative spellings include Umm al Qiwain (used on its former postage stamps) as well as Umm al-Qawain, Umm al-Qaywayn, Umm el-Qiwain, and Umm al-Quwain.


In 1775 Sheikh Majid Al Mualla, founder of the ruling Al Mualla lineage of the Al `Ali clan, established an independent sheikdom in Umm al-Quwain.
On 8 January 1820, Sheikh Abdullah I signed the General Maritime Treaty with the United Kingdom, thus accepting a British protectorate in order to keep the Ottoman Turks out. Like four of its neighbours, Ajman, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Sharjah, its position on the route to India made it important enough to be recognized as a salute state (albeit of the lowest class: only 3 guns).

Location of Umm Al Quwain in the United Arab Emirates
On 2 December 1971, Sheikh Ahmad II joined the United Arab Emirates.
The successive rulers were:
1775 - 17.. Sheikh Majid Al Mu`alla
17.. - 1816 Sheikh Rashid I ibn Majid Mu`alla
1816 - 1853 Sheikh Abdullah I ibn Rashid Al Mu`alla
1853 - 1873 Sheikh Ali ibn Abdullah Al Mu`alla
1873 - 13 June 1904 Sheikh Ahmad I ibn `Abd Allah Al Mu`alla (b. 18.. - d. 1904)
13 June 1904 - August 1922 Sheikh Rashid II ibn Ahmad Al Mu`alla (b. 1875 - d. 1922)
August 1922 - October 1923 Sheikh `Abdallah II ibn Rashid Al Mu`alla
October 1923 - 9 February 1929 Sheikh Hamad ibn Ibrahim Al Mu`alla
9 February 1929 - 21 February 1981 Sheikh Ahmad II ibn Rashid Al Mu`alla (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
21 February 1981 - Sheikh Rashid III ibn Ahmad Al Mu'alla (b. 1930)

Refrence: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umm_al-Quwain

Ajman (عجمان)

Ajman, located a short distance north-east of Sharjah’s capital city is the smallest of the seven emirates in terms of its physical size, occupying only about 0.3 per cent of the country’s total landmass.Ajman city is blessed with a natural harbour. Fishing, both traditional and modern, and dhow building are still important industries. This was once a quiet town with a beautiful 16km stretch of white sand beach but, like the rest of the Emirates, it is undergoing significant development. Ajman’s central square where the old fort, now a museum, is located, is within walking distance of hotels, restaurants and coast.Ajman Museum (06 7423824)This fascinating museum was opened in 1981 in a lovely old eighteenth century fort which served as the Ruler’s palace and office until 1970, when it became the main police station. Located in the town centre, the museum houses an interesting collection of archaeological artefacts, manuscripts, old weapons and reconstructions of traditional life.Dhow YardThe boatbuilding yard on the north side of the Creek is just a few kilometres from the city centre. This is one of the most active dhow-building yards in the country, and is well worth a visit.MowaihatThe archaeological site of Mowaihat is located on the oustkirts of Ajman. In 1986, while laying a new sewerage pipe, workers from the Municipality discovered a circular Umm al-Nar-type tomb (2500 BC to 2000 BC), c. 8.25m in diameter. A rescue excavation was conducted which recovered numerous examples of soft-stone and painted Umm al-Nar ceramic vessels, as well as over 3000 beads, two stamp seals, a number of copper implements, and the skeletal remains of several dozen individuals. At the time of its discovery, the Mowaihat tomb represented the first indication of Umm al-Nar period occupation in the Northern Emirates. Subsequent work has now identified major sites of this period on the Gulf coast at Al Sufouh, Tell Abraq and Shimal. The material from Mowaihat forms the bulk of the archaeological finds on display in the Ajman Museum.Around AjmanAjman also has two inland enclaves: Masfut is an agricultural village located in the mountains 110km to the south-east of the city, whilst Manama lies approximately 60km to the east.